Water-King is an electronic Physical Water Conditioner that inhibits scale formation in hot and cold water services, removes existing scale deposits and partially softens hot water. It requires no plumbing, is completely maintenance free and has a minimum design life of 25 years.
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Water-King electronic water conditioners are some of the most powerful devices of their type. Using the latest electronic technology enables us to produce a product comparable in performance to much larger, more expensive systems at a much lower cost. They are more cost effective and therefore perfect as a value engineered alternative to more expensive systems.
Water-King is a non intrusive electronic water conditioner that inhibits scale formation, removes existing scale deposits and partially softens hot water. It requires no plumbing and there is no need for ongoing maintenance nor servicing.
The technology explained
Water-King uses pre-programmed micro-chips to transmit pulses of electrical charge into the water at varying frequencies and amplitudes. These “signals” cause some of the salts in the water to form sub-microscopic clusters. When the water is then heated, the clusters act as nucleation seeds upon which the calcium carbonate (limescale) precipitates. Instead of the hard encrustation on pipes and heating elements that normally occurs when water is heated, the precipitation takes the form of tiny calcium carbonate crystals that float suspended in the water. These invisible fine crystals are carried away with the flowing water. See Oxford University Report
Field trials conducted over the past fourteen years have demonstrated the effectiveness of Water-King in many applications where conventional water softeners would normally be used. Water-King is less expensive to install and maintain than ion exchange softeners. In larger applications it is also less expensive and simpler to install than inline magnetic and electro magnetic systems. Water-King requires very little space, no special plumbing, no waste water connection nor access for the supply of salt and its storage. There is no head loss nor any additional corrosion problems.
How Is The Water Softened Without Removing The Calcium?
The clusters created by Water-King stimulate the conversion of more of the dissolved calcium bicarbonate in the water into crystals in suspension than would otherwise occur. The resulting hot water, with less calcium bicarbonate, is now chemically softer. Soap, which reacts adversely with calcium bicarbonate, will create more lather despite the fact that the total amount of calcium, dissolved and suspended, remains the same. Water-King is the only electronic device of its kind that has been proven by independent laboratory tests to produce softer water. See Advertising Standards Authority Reports
Unlike ion exchange softened water, where minerals are removed and replaced by sodium, Water-King treated water is suitable for drinking. There is no need for a separate drinking water supply, no health risks and no salt effluent. The problems of head loss and corrosion do not occur.
Removal of Existing Scale Deposits
Water-King is very effective at removing existing scale deposits from water heaters, calorifiers and pipes. Descaling occurs within a few weeks. The scale breaks away in small plates as it loses adhesion with the surface that is encrusting. In existing systems that are badly scaled it may be worth considering fitting a filter on the hot flow from the water heater to protect blending valves and other appliances.
Running costs of all units is less than £15.00 per annum. The design life is 25 years with a 5-year manufacturer’s warranty. Water-King has a no quibble 100-day money-back satisfaction guarantee, which is extendable subject to negotiation.
Water-King uses pre-programed micro-chips to transmit pulses of electrical charge into the water at varying frequencies and amplitudes. These “signals” cause some of the minerals in the water to form sub-microscopic clusters. When the water is then heated, the clusters act as nucleation seeds upon which the calcium carbonate (limescale) precipitates. Instead of the hard encrustation on pipes and heating elements that normally occurs when water is heated, the precipitation takes the form of tiny calcium carbonate crystals that float suspended in the water. These ultra-fine crystals are carried away with the flowing water.
Field trials conducted over the past fifteen years around the world have demonstrated the effectiveness of Water-King in most applications where conventional water softeners would normally be used. Water-King is less expensive to install and maintain than ion exchange softeners. In larger applications it is also less expensive and simpler to install than inline magnetic and electro magnetic systems. Water-King requires very little space, no special plumbing, no waste water connection nor access for the supply of salt and its storage. There is no head loss nor any additional corrosion problems.
The nucleation seeds created by Water-King stimulate the conversion of more of the dissolved calcium bicarbonate in the water into crystals in suspension than would otherwise occur. The resulting hot water, with less calcium bicarbonate, is now chemically softer. Water-King is the only electronic device of its kind that has been proven by independent laboratory tests to produce softer hot water. See the test results here.
Unlike ion exchange softened water, where minerals are removed and replaced by sodium, Water-King treated water is good for drinking. There is no need for a separate drinking water supply, no health risks and no chloride effluent. It can be used for reducing scale in irrigation systems and food preparation facilities.
Water-King is very effective at removing existing scale deposits from water heaters. Descaling occurs within a few weeks. The scale breaks away in flakes as it loses adhesion with the surface that it is encrusting. In existing systems that are already scaled up the use of strainers should be considered to reduce the problem that debris scale can cause. Mixing valves, aerators and shower heads can collect debris. Heat exchangers with restricted flow passages such as Geononi, Plate and Frame and MAXXflo are very vulnerable to debris and should be protected with strainers where possible.
Running costs of all units is less than £15.00 per annum. The design life is in excess of 25 years with a 5-year manufacturer’s warranty. Water-King comes with a no quibble 100-day money-back satisfaction guarantee. This is extendable subject to negotiation.
Installing a Water-King unit ensures compliance with the Domestic Heating Compliance Guide included in the Part L Regulations – water treatment is required to reduce the accumulation of limescale in domestic water heaters. Water-King units have been awarded BREEAM credits on building projects. For more information please call our technical hotline.
Location of Units
In general a Water-King unit should be installed as close as possible to the appliance where water is to be heated and scale is likely to form. This means in practice it should be installed on the cold service within the same plant room as the calorifier or water heater. If point-of-use electric water heaters are being used where hot water draw-off is sparse or spasmodic, such as in an office environment, it is best to fit a dedicated unit such as the Sentry to each heater or cluster of heaters.
The signal generated by Water-King is transmitted through the water both upstream (back signal) and downstream from the unit. This means that appliances and storage tanks upstream from the unit can be treated.
Vented cold water storage cisterns generally cause a discontinuity in the signal transmission resulting in decay of the clustering effect generated by the Water-King. This problem can be overcome by installing a unit on one of the outlet pipes from the cistern or header and utilising the “Back Signal” to treat the stored water within the tank. Where hot and cold tanks are close coupled, or there is no ready access to the outlet, the “Air Gap” can be bridged by installing a unit on the supply pipe and grounding one of the aerials to the tank. This procedure is fully explained in the installation instructions.
Pumps cause a significant reduction in the effectiveness of Water-King so, wherever there is a pump, in general there should be a Water-King unit located downstream from it.
We recommend that the HWSR should be treated with a Water-King unit installed between the circulation pump and the calorifier or water heater.
We recommend that the flow and the return of heat exchangers are treated. Aerials should be applied to the flow after the pump. This is most easily achieved using one of the four aerial units such as the WK2 or WK3. Frequently however, access is limited or the pump is too closely located to allow treatment of the flow. In these cases we recommend treating only the return. This applies especially to modular tank heaters where the Water-King should be installed on the return lines inside the casing.
Generally this type of water heater is highly resistant to scaling, but to protect buffer vessels and other downstream appliances we recommend treatment of the return to the buffer at a point after the HWSR and make up water.
Most of the scale formed in these fittings is precipitated from cold water. The cold water supply to these appliances should also be treated with a Water-King unit. When a conventional water softener is installed to treat only the hot water services it is common to find scale forming in mixing valves, shower heads and taps. A Water-King unit installed on the cold services will reduce this scaling.
Where water is being constantly circulated, such as through a cooling tower or swimming pool, the Water-King unit should be fitted on the circulating system downstream from the pump and as close as possible to where the heating process or pressure drop is occurring. There is no need to treat the make up water. Adequate provision must be made for filtering to remove suspended solids.
On a swimming pool the unit should be installed between the pump and the filter or heater.
Install a Water-King unit after the pump. On high pressure mister lines we recommend a Sentry unit is installed on each line
Where systems are designed to operate with make up water for evaporation, such as cooling towers or humidifiers, adequate provision must be made to clear any deposits by regular “blow down” or other means.
Plumbing Requirements and Pipe Composition
Each Water-King aerial requires up to 6 cm of straight pipe. They can be fitted either side of bends on horizontal or vertical pipes. Water-King units can be fitted to pipes of any material except lead. The pipe does not need to be cut, there is no plumbing involved, nor is there any requirement for an isolating bypass with associated valves. Insulation may be fitted over the aerials after installation.
Each unit requires mains voltage supply within one metre of the unit. The unit should be located within 45 cm of the pipe being treated.
Selecting the Correct Size of Unit
Having decided where to locate the Water-King, select the appropriate sized unit according to the pipe diameter. If hot water is provided by a Direct Fired Water Heater then select the larger size according to the maximum output rating.
Direct Fired Water Heaters
We recommend maximum heat ratings for different sized units and this also varies according to whether they are gas fired, oil fired or heated electrically.
Flow Rate is immaterial as far as Water-King is concerned The greater the flow, the more effective the unit tends to be.
|Maximum pipe diameter||28mm||42mm||67mm||108mm||159mm|
|Direct fired gas / oil boiler||35 kW||50 kW||350 kW||750 kW||1125 kW|
|Electrical boiler||5 kW||10 kW||30 kW||100 kW||150 kW|
|Aerial number/length||2/2.0 m.||4/2.0 m.||4/4.0 m.||4/7.0 m.||6/9.0 m.|
|Minimum aerial turns||12 turns||12 turns||15 turns||15 turns||15 turns|
|Frequency range||1-10 kHz.||1-10 kHz.||1-10 kHz.||1-10 kHz.||1-10 kHz.|
|Peak to peak output voltage||82 V.||82 V.||82 V.||82 V.||82 V.|
|Power supply required||230 V or 110 V.||230 V or 110 V.||230 V or 110 V.||230 V or 110 V.||230 V or 110 V.|
|Input current||0.02 A.||0.03 A.||0.04 A.||0.08 A.||0.1 A.|
|Power consumption||1 W.||1 W.||2 W.||2 W.||3 W.|
|Lead length||1.5 m.||1.5 m.||1.5 m.||1.5 m.||1.5 m.|
|Dimensions (mm.)||140 x 85 x 50||220 x 155 x 67||220 x 165 x 60||270 x 260 x 110||270 x 260 x 110|
|Weight||0.80 kg.||1.25 kg.||1.50 kg.||3.00 kg.||3.25 kg.|
|Ambient temperature||0 – 70°C||0 – 70°C||0 – 70°C||0 – 70°C||0 – 70°C|
|IP Rating||IP 68||IP 65||IP 65||IP 65|
The Water-King Sentry is the entry level unit and has been specifically designed with the needs of the Housing Associations and RSL’s in mind. It is compact, tamper resistant, and automatically resets so requires no monitoring.
It is fully waterproof (IPX8 3 meters) so can be used in damp or hostile environments, including commercial catering applications, shower blocks and external use on irrigation systems. It is especially suitable for protecting individual appliances.
The Water-King WK2 is larger and more powerful than the Sentry. It has two pairs of aerials which can be used to reinforce the signal to a single pipe, or split to treat a second pipe. This arrangement ideally suits the designs of many heat exchangers.
The Water-King WK3 is a powerful unit designed to treat most commercial applications. It is frequently specified to treat the mains cold water supply to direct fired water heaters and paired with a Sentry on the secondary return. The WK3 and larger units have an output for a Building Management System (BMS) to detect power failure.
The Water-King WK4 is designed to treat large commercial applications, with pipe sizes up to 108mm. The WK4 is frequently specified in high rise developments, large student accommodation blocks and hotels.
The Water-King WK5 is the largest standard Water-King. It has six aerial outputs arranged as three pairs, which are capable of treating pipe sizes up to 159mm. Larger units are available as a special order.
Self-Diagnostic “Guard Chip” – Every computer system is prone to malfunction, especially if there is a sudden variation in the power supply which can jam the program. Most systems have to be reset by manual re-booting. Water-King units overcome this problem by an additional “Guard Chip” program which monitors the performance of the main program and resets the system automatically if it detects a variation or system failure. There is no need for manual resetting after power outage.
Suggested Specification For Water Treatment
One or more electronic water conditioners shall be fitted to the cold mains supply and HWR in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The unit shall have one or more pairs of open ended aerials wrapped around the pipework generating a series of square waves of random length and occurrence between 1 kHz and 10 kHz. The peak to peak output voltage will be in excess of 80 volts.
Technical Assistance for specifications
Our technical department is very experienced at advising consultants and contractors of the most effective way of treating water using Water-King technology. We are able to receive drawings by e-mail and will respond immediately.
Where to Buy and Merchant Product Codes
Click here for a list of approved plumbing merchant stockists and their respective product codes for the Water-King range.
For details of your nearest stocking branch or if you have any order queries, please call our office on 01608 811707.